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Background – Basic Texts

The International Pacific Halibut Commission (IPHC) is an international organization established by a Convention between Canada and the United States of America.

The IPHC Convention was signed on 2 March 1923 (by both Contracting Parties), ratified by the US Senate on 31 May 1924, then by the President on 4 June 1924, and finally by Great Britain on 21 July 1924. Ratifications were exchanged on 21 October 1924 and proclaimed on 22 October 1924. The convention came into force on the date of exchange, 21 October 1924. The Convention has been revised several times since, to extend the Commission’s authority and meet new conditions in the fishery. The most recent change occurred in 1979 and involved an amendment to the 1953 Halibut Convention. The amendment, termed a “protocol”, was precipitated in 1976 by Canada and the United States of America extending their jurisdiction over fisheries resources to 200 miles. The 1979 Protocol along with the U.S. legislation that gave effect to the Protocol (Northern Pacific Halibut Act of 1982) has affected the way the fishery is conducted, and redefined the role of IPHC in the management of the fishery during the 1980s. Canada does not require specific enabling legislation to implement the protocol.


To develop the stocks of Pacific halibut in the Convention waters to those levels which will permit the optimum yield from the fishery and to maintain the stocks at those levels.


      • Convention (1979) – The Protocol amending the Convention for the Preservation of the Halibut Fishery of the Northern Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea.

      • Rules of Procedure (2024) – The Rules of Procedure consist of rules and regulations adopted by the IPHC pursuant to the Convention between Canada and the United States of America. 

      • Financial Regulations (2024) – The Financial Regulations govern the financial administration of the IPHC and were established pursuant to the Commission’s Rules of Procedure.




        As detailed in the IPHC Convention, the Commission shall:

            • Divide the Convention waters into areas;

            • Establish one or more open or closed seasons as to each area;

            • Limit the size of the fish and the quantity of the catch to be taken from each area within any season during which fishing is allowed;

            • During both open and closed seasons, permit, limit, regulate or prohibit the incidental catch of Pacific halibut that may be taken, retained, possessed, or landed from each area or portion of an area, by vessels fishing for other species of fish;

            • Fix the size and character of Pacific halibut fishing appliances to be used in any area;

            • Make such regulations for the licensing of vessels and for the collection of statistics on the catch of Pacific halibut as it shall find necessary to determine the condition and trend of the Pacific halibut fishery and to carry out the other provisions of this Convention;

            • Close to all taking of Pacific halibut any area or portion of an area that the Commission finds to be populated by small, immature Pacific halibut and designates as nursery grounds.


          IPHC Convention Article II, paragraph 3:

          “Convention waters” means the waters off the west coasts of Canada and the United States, including the southern as well as the western coasts of Alaska, within the respective maritime areas in which either Party exercises exclusive fisheries jurisdiction. For purposes of this Convention, the “maritime area” in which a Party exercises fisheries jurisdiction includes without distinction areas within and seaward of the territorial sea or internal waters of that Party.


          In this Section


          Since its inception, the International Pacific Halibut Commission has granted

          Performance Monitoring

          2nd Performance Review of the IPHC (PRIPHC02) The following are

          Executive Directors

          About Executive Director David T. Wilson, Ph.D. Previous Directors

          Structure of the Commission

          Structure of the Commission IPHC Structure The Commission, including its